Emerging Biotechnologies

What is new? And, how is it different?


Genetic engineering or bioengineering can create transgenic plants by expressing novel genes introduced by agrobacterium-mediated transformation, particle bombardment and cloning. These genes can provide traits, such as pest and disease resistance as well as crop improvement and the addition of nutritional value.

Other breeding technologies include RNA interference (RNAi), Cisgenesis, Intragenesis, grafting, agro-infiltration, RNA-dependent DNA methylation and reverse breeding.

Gene editing targets DNA to introduce, remove, or substitute one or more nucleotides. It does not introduce new DNA. Techniques include: Clustered regulatory interspersed short palindromic repeat associated nucleases (CRISPR), Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM).


How do we regulate?


Regulatory bodies in developed countries have the infrastructure to decide what should be regulated. However, this is often not science-driven policy.